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FO-byen - et nyt bykvarter


BILLEDER VEDR. UDGRAVNINGER I FO-BYEN

For nylig var arkæolog Karin Poulsen i FO-byen med et foredrag om Moesgaards udgravninger i FO-byen. På dette link kan man se nogle
af hendes dias fra foredraget: http://www.slideshare.net/dkmuseer/oplg-kolding

Og på dette link, kan man finde en lille video fra foredraget: http://www.fo-aarhus.dk/nyheder/2013/video-skeletter-og-grave-i-fo-byen/

 

 

Historiske oplysninger v/ Henrik Fode

I oktober 2009 blev Aarhus tilført et nyt begreb eller måske snarere lokalitet. For at tydeliggøre det blev der udsendt indbydelser til indvielse af den ny lokalitet, der blev præsenteret som FO-byen. For den uindviede var der gjort en betydelig pædagogisk indsats ikke mindst ved at vedlægge en elegant flerfarvet tegning, der viste FO-byen. De lokalkendte kunne straks identificere stedet, der var afgrænset af Vester Allé, Christiansgade og med Frederiksgade som den parallelle afgrænsning til Christiansgade.

 

FO-byen -2014 Lille

 

FO-byen var et bygningskompleks, der med udgangspunkt i den gamle pigeskole og en samling ældre bygninger bagved mod Frederiksgade nu skulle markedsføres. Der var knyttet flere begreber til indbydelsen, for den talte også om Folkeoplysningens Hus, og sådan står der også i dag på gavlen over den gamle kommuneskole.

Det er dette kvarter, dets historie og baggrund, der skal ridses op i det følgende.

Christiansgades Skole
Aarhus var i vækst i årene frem mod år 1900. Det var tydeligt for alle, at der flyttede stadig flere til fra oplandet. Mange så en fremtid i købstaden med dens mange nye arbejdspladser. På landet var der en vis rationalisering på vej, der betød, at der ikke længere var plads til tidligere tiders mange landarbejdere og småkårsfolk. For mange var perspektivet derfor at søge mod byen - og hvis man ikke fandt lykken her - var der også muligheder i det store udland: udvandring til Amerika.

Hele denne tilstrømning af nye borgere gav et vældigt pres på byens skoler. Op i 1890'erne blev det tema drøftet mange gange i byrådssalen på rådhuset bag Domkirken. Sidst i 1890'erne blev der taget et afgørende skridt. Der skulle etableres to nye skoler. En mindre forskole på Christiansbjerg og en stor moderne skole for piger midt i byen. Den sidstnævnte var den, der siden blev kendt under navnet Christiansgades Pigeskole. Dengang hed den noget lidt andet: Det var en "borgerpigeskole", og i et fællesudvalgsmøde mellem Skoleudvalget og Udvalget for Byens Udvidelse og Bebyggelse i 1898 blev det vedtaget at lægge den på Bispetoften. Drengene havde allerede fået deres skole i Ny Munkegade i 1890.
Skolebyggeri havde været en meget stor udgiftspost på de kommunale budgetter, og da byen var i hastig vækst, blev der med få års mellemrum opført nye kommunale skolebygninger, sådan som det ses af nedenstående opstilling: 

Kommunalt skolebyggeri i Aarhus 1862-1914
År          Navn
1862    Paradisgades Skole
1880    Valdemarsgades Skole
1884    Frederiks Allé Skole
1890    Ny Munkegades Skole
1893    Nørrebrogades Skole
1900    Christiansgades Skole
1903    Ingerslevs Boulevards Skole
1907    Finsensgades Skole
1910    Fjordsgades Skole
1914    Samsøgades Skole


FO by Skolepiger 1913

7.a, 1913

Endnu var det sådan, at drenge og piger slet ikke gik i den samme klasse men heller ikke i den samme skole. Der var derfor både kommunale drengeskoler og pigeskoler. I årene omkring 1900 manglede der midt i byen skolepladser til netop pigerne. Løsningen blev opførelsen af en helt ny skole i Christiansgade.

Bispetoften
Sådan havde arealet heddet i adskillige generationer, selv om det ikke længere var kirkens folk, der ejede det. En del tilhørte ejerne af Aarhus Mølle, og før der for alvor kunne bygges på stedet, måtte der mageskiftes i området.

Vejen, der førte ned mod åen og videre over broen, hed i mange år blot "Vejen bag om byen" eller "Jeronimusbakken". Det er den, vi i dag kender under navnet Vester Allé. Et navn, vejen først fik i 1888. Ud mod denne lå allerede flere monumentale bygninger opført for offentlige midler. Der var ridehuset, dragonkasernens hovedbygning og kgl. bygningsinspektør V. Th. Walthers fattiggård, før man på den anden side af åen mødte museumsbygningen, som Walther også havde været arkitekt på.

De monumentale bygninger krævede derfor næsten, at der blev opført en skole af god kvalitet og med god arkitektur. Det synes netop at have været forklaringen på, at der blev udskrevet en arkitektkonkurrence om det nye projekt. Vinderen blev arkitekt C. Harild, der herefter fik ansvar for opførelsen af pigeskolen.

Harild var ikke en tilfældig arkitekt men en af de unge, der havde haft tætte kontakter til områdets kgl. bygningsinspektør siden 1892 - Hack Kampmann - og han havde også været medarbejder på Statsbiblioteket, hvor han ikke mindst havde et særligt ansvar for dets inventar. Nævnes bør det også, at han var konduktør på Aarhus Teater, der netop var under opførelse. Ligesom sin læremester var han stærkt optaget af at anvende mange dekorative detaljer og ægte solide materialer. Efter Hack Kampmanns død i 1920 overtog Carl Harild i øvrigt færdiggørelsen af flere af læremesterens ikke færdiggjorte projekter.

Pigeskolen i Aarhus var et af Carl Harilds første selvstændige projekter. Han blev i øvrigt siden palæforvalter på Amalienborg. Man kan derfor roligt konstatere, at de lokalt besluttende myndigheder tidligt havde blik for Harilds arkitektoniske kvaliteter.

FO by Pigeskolen 1947
Skolen i 1947 set fra Vester Allé

I dag kan man måske undre sig over, at der blev gjort så meget ud af et skolebyggeri, men en af forklaringerne synes at have været, at der her var tale om den første bygning, der blev opført i den nye gade: Christiansgade, der var navngivet året før efter den regerende konge, Christian IX. Der skulle derfor også af den grund lægges et vist arkitektonisk niveau for det bykvarter, der var på vej på Bispetoften. Statsbiblioteket var også på vej med sin store bygning, og der er næppe tvivl om, at kommunen gerne ville bygge i samme kvalitet som staten. Her gik man i gang med byggearbejderne i 1898 og Statsbiblioteket blev indviet i 1901.

Arkitektkonkurrencen
Det havde ikke været nogen let beslutning at nå frem til valg af arkitekt. Udvalget havde drøftet muligheden af at vælge en lokal eller udskrive en konkurrence. Man gik til byrådet i foråret 1898, og her blev det besluttet at vælge "konkurrencemodellen". Herefter gik sagen tilbage til udvalget, der opstillede konkurrencebetingelserne.

31. marts 1898 var konkurreceindbydelsen på vej gennem byrådet. Materialet var gennemarbejdet i en sådan grad, at det næsten kun var op til deltagerne at udfylde rammerne. Udvalg og byråd havde allerede besluttet, hvordan bygningen eller bygningerne skulle ligge på den planlagte grund. "Facade mod Christiansgade og ca. 5 alen tilbagetrukket fra gadelinien samt med to hovedindgange fra legepladsen", som det blev anført i konkurrencematerialet.

Videre stod det noteret, at hovedbygningen skulle opføres i to etager med høj kælder. Der skulle være 15 klasseværelser, der yderligere blev specificeret. Og så var det et krav, at den almindelige undervisning ikke måtte kunne forstyrres af gymnastik- og sanglokalet, hvorfor mure mod den øvrige skole skulle isoleres på en særlig måde. "Biblioteksværelse eller måske lærerværelse kunne lægges imellem", som det blev udtrykt.

FO by Husalfkursus 1953
Husalfkursus 1963

I kælderetagen ønskede udvalget et rummeligt omklædningsrum og et mindre rekvisitrum foruden gymnastiksalen. Endelig skulle der her være plads til brændselsrum, til varmeapparat samt en pedelbolig med tre værelser, pigekammer, køkken, spisekammer samt vaskerum.
To rum, der evt. kunne benyttes til skolebade var også på ønskesedlen sammen med et skolekøkken. Det sidste skulle igen anbringes på en sådan måde, at skolen blev generet så lidt som muligt af madlugt herfra, som det blev udtrykt.

Så var der legepladsen, hvortil der også var særlige krav, men set med moderne øjne, yderst beskedne: Udvalget ønskede blot et stort halvtag samt "et passende antal retirader".

FO by Vandkumme 3

Drikkekumme i skolegården

I konkurrencen bad man også om et overslag til en overlærerbolig i villastil, som det blev udtrykt. Den skulle være på seks værelser foruden pigekammer, køkken spisekammer og kælder. Men, der skulle her tages hensyn til, at prisen på denne overlærervilla ikke måtte overstige 11.000 kr.

Byrådet mente, at de konkurrerende arkitekter yderligere burde vejledes om projektet:
Derfor blev det tilføjet, at bygningerne skulle tækkes med skiffer, samt at materialet som anvendtes skulle være ekstra godt: "marvskåret træ til dør- og vinduesrammer". Et vist valg var dog overladt til arkitekterne. De kunne således selv afgøre, om trapperne skulle udføres af granit eller fyrretræ.

Tilbuddene skulle være til at overskue, hvorfor det blev krævet, at tilbuddene skulle opdeles i 7 punkter:
• Murerarbejde
• Tømrerarbejde
• Snedkerarbejde
• Malerarbejde
• Glarmesterarbejde
• Smedearbejde
• Blikkenslager- og skifferarbejde.

Der var således nok at gøre for de konkurrerende arkitekter, men præmien til den vindende var nok så stor: 500,- kr., hvilket svarede til en lille årsløn for en arbejdsmand eller lidt under det halve af en lærerindes årsløn.

Konkurrencen afgøres
I efteråret 1898 ventede byrådet med spænding på resultatet af konkurrencen. Det er tydeligt, at det var med en vis skuffelse, at man konstaterede, at der kun indkom tre forslag. Det ene kunne straks kasseres, men tilbage var der to, der var indsendt anonymt under mærke: Det ene havde fået et byvåben som mærke, mens det andet havde benyttet en blomst. Ingen af projekterne var man helt tilfredse med. Da kuverterne blev brudt afsløredes navnene på de to arkitekter: Thorkel Møller og Carl Harild.

Mærkeligt nok tilfaldt præmien Thorkel Møller, men det projekt man valgte, var ikke hans, men som allerede nævnt, udarbejdet af Carl Harild. Man var dog opmærksomme på, at Harilds forslag krævede en del "tilpasninger", før udvalget fandt, at det opfyldte de ønsker, som skolekommissionen havde opstillet.

Den vindende arkitekt - Thorkel Møller - var bestemt ikke ukendt i byen - eller for den sags skyld for Harild. Thorkel Møller havde nemlig også arbejdet for den kgl. bygningsinspektør Hack Kampmann og i årene omkring 1900 haft store opgaver med ombygninger på Hotel Royal. Siden fik han adskillige betydelige opgaver i byen. I 1907 var han arkitekt bag Sct. Josephs Hospital på Ingerslevs Boulevard, siden arkitekt bag Marselisborg Hospital, der blev opført omkring 1912. På Bispetoften blev han siden kendt som arkitekten bag Ny Jysk Købstads Kreditforenings store bygning tæt på Christiansgade på det sted, der dengang hed Louisegade og i dag Åboulevarden. Han kom således også med sin arkitektur til at præge det nye bykvarter på Bispetoften.

Skoleordning
Den Aarhusianske skoleordning, der rettede sig mod den nye skole gik tilbage til 1880. Pigeskolen havde efter forordningen et syvårigt forløb med to forskoleklasser for 7-9-årige og fem hovedskoleklasser for 9-14-årige. Der var endnu noget, der hed skolepenge. I de fire nederste klasser betaltes der 2 kroner om måneden, i de tre øverste 3 kroner.

FO by Lærerinde Agnes Kjær med pigeklasse 1902
Lærerinde Agnes Kjær med pigeklasse 1902

Mellem- og realskolen blev oprettet i 1906, men den gamle borgerskoleundervisning fortsatte i endnu nogle år. Eleverne kunne efter 4. klasse gå videre i enten den fireårige mellemskole eller den treårige borgerskole. Indskrivning af betalingselever skete sidste gang i foråret 1909, og skolebetalingen ophørte med udgangen af marts 1912.

I spidsen for skolen havde kommunen fra starten, sådan som det var sædvane, naturligvis ansat en mand med titel af overlærer. Theodora Müller havde været ansat ved skolen omtrent fra dens start. 15 år senere blev hun udnævnt til overlærer og blev dermed den første kvinde i en kommunal lederstilling i Aarhus.

FO by Afgangsklasse 1914
Afgangsklasse fra 1914

Efter flytningen af pigeskolen til Christiansgade i 1900, blev det muligt at forøge skolens elevtal og oprette to parallelforløb. I tiden, der fulgte, øgedes elev- og klassetallet yderligere, og der gik for det meste mellem 500 og 600 piger i skolen. I gennemsnit omkring 29 piger pr. klasse.
En lærerløn var i 1905 i gennemsnit 1748 kr. årligt, mens en lærerinde i gennemsnit måtte nøjes med en noget mindre løn: 1243 årligt. Bedre lønnede var byens overlærere - eller skoleinspektører, som en senere tid kaldte skolens ledere. Her lå lønnen på 3342 årligt, som det oplyses i de kommunale beretninger fra 1905.

Der var andet nævnt i beretningerne som karakteriserede tiden: Børnene skulle gerne på skolen have et bad hver 14. dag under ledelse af skolens pedel eller dennes hustru - dog under tilsyn af skolens lærerpersonale, som det udtryktes.

En moderne skole anno 1900
Man havde fået en skole opført efter tidens moderne principper. Teknisk kaldte man modellen for en midterkorridor-skole. Det indebar, at der lå klasser på begge sider af en bred midtergang på hver etage. Det betød igen, at der til begge sider var mulighed for store vinduer og dermed et godt lysindfald og god mulighed for udluftning. I tagetagen var der indrettet bibliotek, fysiklokale og plads til pedellen.

Lokalefordeling [1]


Også kælderetagen var godt udnyttet. Herfra var der indgang til den store gymnastiksal, og i tilknytning hertil var der naturligvis indrettet omklædningsrum og bad. I bygningens modsatte ende var der indrettet skolekøkken i bygningens fulde bredde. Her i kælderetagen var der endnu ledige rum, selv om der også var plads til det moderne varmeanlæg, der endnu krævede, at der blev fyret med kul. Et rum til kul, var der følgelig også afsat plads til.

De fleste klasseværelser synes at have haft samme størrelse. Kun sanglokalet på 1. sal synes at have været lidt større, mens det moderne "naturklasselokale" fulgte de øvrige klassers størrelse.
Inventaret var selvfølgelig efter tidens standard. Det var skolepulte med faste bænke i rækker bag hinanden. Man har sikkert indkøbt to, måske tre størrelser, så pultene passede til de enkelte klassetrin. Midt på pulten var der almindeligvis plads til et blækhus, hvor eleverne kunne dyppe den stive stålpen.

FO by Lærerinde Jenny Bøgh 1900-1917
Jenny Bøgh, lærerinde fra 1900-1917

Lærerne var der naturligvis også tænkt på. Datiden krævede to lærerværelser, og da de fleste var kvinder, var deres naturligvis det største, mens de mandlige læreres - der var i starten kun få - var mere beskedent. Lærerindernes lå i stueetagen, mens lærernes lå på 1. sal. Et fotografi fra 1902 viser lærerstaben med ti kvinder og fire mænd. Kvinderne sidder forrest i tækkelige kjoler, der dækker helt ned til skoene, mens mændene står bagved, alle med overskæg og et fast blik rettet mod fotografen.

Laererpersonalet - 1902
Lærerstaben 1902

Det var et smukt og harmonisk byggeri, kommunen havde fået leveret. Endnu i dag er det en fornøjelse at studere de fine gavle mod Vester Allé. Her har tidens håndværkere vist deres bedste. Man frydes over de røde håndstrøgne mursten lagt på en sokkel af granit. De ikke blot velplacerede vinduer, men også velformede, opdelte indfatninger med mindre ruder øverst og større i bunden af indfatningen. Der er den beskedne benyttelse af ornamenter men dog med en inskription i gavlen udført i sandsten. Men der er også den lille karnap/kvist øverst, hvor arkitekten havde anbragt et stort ur, så ikke blot skolebørn kunne nå rettidigt frem, men også forbipasserende kunne notere sig klokken. Urskiven var naturligvis udført af den lokale kobbersmed A. Wilson.

Ganske som på Statsbiblioteket og siden på Ting- og arresthuset havde kunstneren Karl Hansen Reistrup været med til at dekorere den nye skole. Det blev dog her kun til to platter på ydermuren, færdiggjort på Kæhlers keramiske værksted i Næstved. Den ene viste en lille pige med flæseforklæde, mens den anden var en pige på vej til at forlade skolen, nu symboliseret med blondekrave, broche og håret i fletninger.

FO by Figurer fra skolegavl nu Frydenlundskolen


Den lange facade mod Christiansgade kan måske nok opfattes som noget "mere urolig" end gavlen. Den var bevidst tilstræbt symmetrisk. I stuetagen var vinduerne udformet med en bue, mens vinduerne på første sal var firkantede. I den yderste ende mod Vester Allé havde arkitekten været nødt til igen at forstørre selve vinduespartiet for at sikre tilstrækkelig med lys til den store sal bagved, så den løsning var i et vist omfang også tilpasset den anden ende af bygningen. Under den øverste række vinduer havde Harild tilføjet et bånd, der stilfærdigt delte den lange facade.

FO by Chrisitansgade 1929
Christiansgade-facaden, 1929

Kun mod gården var der indsat en række kviste i tagfladen for at sikre dagslys til loftsetagen.
Villaen eller overlærerboligen var udført i samme arkitekturstreg, men naturligvis i mindre format, der passede elegant ind i helheden. Villaen var dog blevet forsynet med en altan i træ ud mod Vester Allé.

Arkitekten havde holdt budgettet. Skolen havde kostet 136.000 kr., og overlærerboligen lå inden for den ramme, som var fastsat: 11.000 kr.
Vi kender navnene på alle de håndværksmestre, der stod bag opførelsen. De var stort set alle lokale, for deres regninger blev optrykt i byrådets "trykte forhandlinger". Der var dog enkelte undtagelser. Her fremgår det f.eks., at keramikerværkstedet Kähler i Næstved havde fået 200,- for de medailloner af skolepiger, som Karl Hansen Reistrup havde udført.

Få år efter Pigeskolens opførelse fandt man ud af, at det var nødvendigt at rejse en betonmur op mod Frederiksgade for officielt at forhindre regnvand i at løbe fra Frederiksgade-bebyggelserne nedover skolegården. Reelt var det vel snarere for at undgå, at skolepigerne skulle forledes til at omlægge skolevejen til Frederiksgade og det "byliv", der var her. I dag er der åbnet en adgangsvej over skolegården mod Frederiksgade. I en af de ældre mellembygninger har FO-Aarhus indrettet sig med moderne kontorfaciliteter (ved den blå pil).

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For skolen fik det afgørende betydning, at boligmønstret efter krigen ændrede karakter. Ikke blot skød nye villakvarterer op rundt om byen, men også boligforeningerne var uhyre aktive og tilbød moderne lejligheder i byens periferi. Måske for at kunne fylde skolen, vedtog kommunen, at der fra 1952 også skulle optages drenge i den gamle skole. Den skiftede derfor navn til Christiansgades skole, idet det lille ord "pige" forsvandt.

Men heller ikke det var nok til at fastholde elevtallet, der langsomt faldt. Udviklingen betød at midtbyen fik færre børnefamilier, og i begyndelsen af 1960'erne besluttede skolemyndighederne, at den nye Frydenlundskole, som 1960-1967 blev bygget i den vestligste del af kommunen tæt på grænsen til Hasle, fra 1962 skulle erstatte Christiansgades skole, der nu kun havde et par hundrede elever fordelt på ni klasser. Det skal tilføjes, at de to platter med skolepigerne flyttede med til Frydenlundskolen.
Aarhus Handelsstandsforenings Handelsskole (fra 1970 Aarhus Købmandsskole), som hidtil havde klaret sig med lejemål i Paradisgades- og Frederiks Allés skoler, overtog i 1960 de ledige bygninger og indrettede dem til brug for handelsskoleundervisningen.

Også det er nu historie. I 2005 købte FO-Aarhus bygningerne i Vester Allé 8 og omdøbte stedet til "Folkeoplysningens Hus", sådan som det i dag kan læses på gavlen ud mod Vester Allé.

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Læs mere om skolens historie her på siden (inkl. historier fortalt at ældre mennesker, der har gået på skolen som børn)

En ny nabo
Selvfølgelig var grundene i Christiansgade med den fine udsigt ned over åen attraktive. Det var Frimurerordenen tidligt opmærksom på. Man havde allerede en bygning i Amaliegade, men den blev solgt til fagbevægelsen og med de midler, blev der i 1908 påbegyndt et storbyggeri i Christiansgade. Arkitekten, der hed Eggert Achen, opførte et tre-etagers hvidkalket palæ som nabo til skolen. Adressen var Christiansgade 6. Kun en smal udgang mellem skolegård og skolebygning adskilte de to byggerier fra hinanden. Under byggeriet blev man opmærksomme på, at der tidligere havde været bebygget på området. Fund af skeletrester viste, at der i området havde ligget et kloster, der strakte sig mod Frederiksgade.
Eggert Achens navn er på det nærmeste glemt i dag, men det var også ham, der lagde navn til såvel Varna-palæet i 1908 som skovrestauranten Ørnereden, der blev opført i 1910.

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Ting- og arresthuset
Der var endnu en ledig grund på Vester Allé over for den nye pigeskole. Der havde været flere planer for denne grund mellem pigeskolen og Statsbiblioteket. En af dem gik ud på at opføre en ny katedralskole her, mens en ældre plan havde foreslået, at byens teater passende kunne have ligget her. Sådan blev det ikke. I stedet kunne man i oktober 1906 indvie et nyt ting- og arresthus på grunden. Også her havde bygherren anvendt modellen med en arkitektkonkurrence. Den blev vundet af arkitekterne L.A. Ludvigsen & Jul Hansen fra København. Igen var det kun de bedste materialer, der var gode nok, og igen blev der opført en monumental bygning, der passede til stedets rammer. Det var for kommunale og amtslige penge, det store byggeri blev rejst. Man var bevidste om, at huset var for stort, men by og amt håbede på, at projektet kunne tiltrække landsretten til Aarhus. Der pågik netop forhandlinger om en ny retsreform, og her ville byen gerne stå med et godt tilbud til staten. Sådan blev det imidlertid ikke. Her spillede ikke mindst fængslingen af justitsminister Alberti for bedrageri en afgørende rolle, da beslutningerne skulle tages. Processen med retsreformen blev ganske enkelt udskudt.
Det store hus på Bispetoften blev dog også adresse for amtsrådsmøder og en mindre politistation.

Frederiksgade - en gammel gennemfartsvej
FO-byen afgrænses mod Frederiksgade - en af byens helt gamle ud- og indfartsveje mod syd.
Aarhus var vokset op på nordsiden af Aarhus Å i bunden af ådalen på to sandbanker, hvoraf den østligste strakte sig helt ud til kysten. Den centrale bydel lå på den østligste af bankerne. Den blev tidligt omkranset af en høj vold og en grav. Det var også her, den magtfulde biskop Peder Vognsen i 1191 valgte at opføre en helt ny domkirke, der først stod færdig omkring 1500.

Omkring 1250 blev der gennemført et stort anlægsarbejde vest for volden, der medførte, at hele det store sumpede område, der udgjorde den vestre voldgrav, blev drænet, og Lille Torv med Immervad ned til Åen blev anlagt med det forløb, vi kender i dag.

På samme tid blev den første bro, vi i dag har kendskab til, anlagt. Det betød, at man nu kunne komme ind til byen fra syd ned over Brobjerg, som området blev kaldt syd for åen.
Selv om vejen op ad Brobjerg formentlig var etableret i slutningen af 1200-årene, er det først i begyndelsen af 1400-årene, at byens borgere i blot lidt større tal slog sig ned på sydsiden af åen. Langs åen voksede Fiskergade frem med en række små huse, mens der op ad vejen mod Brobjerg efterhånden blev bygget større gårde, sandsynligvis af købmænd. Det er et bebyggelsesmønster, der kan følges i de følgende århundreder.

Den økonomiske opblomstring i byen i 1400-årene skabte ikke kun vækst i byen, men også grundlaget for endnu en klosterinstitution: Karmeliterne, en tiggermunkeorden, der fik overdraget et kapel på Brobjerg. Her opførte de i de følgende år et stort firefløjet klosteranlæg med en kirke som sydfløj.

Munkene fik imidlertid ikke glæde af deres nye byggeri ret længe. Reformationen var på vej og efter denne i 1536, blev klosteret overtaget af kronen. Kongen gav i de følgende år de borgere i byen, hvis huse var brændt ned - såvel rige som fattige - lov til at hente sten, tømmer og andet byggemateriale fra karmeliterklosteret. På den måde forsvandt klosteret, hvoraf der i dag kun findes få rester, der er påvist arkæologisk, når spaden stikkes i jorden på grundene Frederiksgade 70-78, eller da frimurerne som nævnt byggede i Christiansgade. Det var her i nr. 76-78 forlystelsesstederne Maritza og natklubben Den Blå Fugl, der senere gjorde stedet bekendt fra midten af 1950erne, havde adresse.

1600-tallet og det følgende århundrede var på mange måder en underlig stilstandsperiode. Snart voksede folketallet, snart faldt det igen bl.a. som følge af epidemier, krige, dyrtid og meget mere.
Vel var slutningen af 1700-årene en begyndende vækstperiode, og selvfølgelig var der købmænd, der kunne fremvise rigdom og byggede nye solide købmandsgårde i bindingsværk, men snart gik det tilbage igen. Napoleonskrigene, der blev efterfulgt af landets bankerot i 1813, skabte igen et økonomisk tilbageslag. Befolkningstallet stod næsten stille. Det havde stabiliseret sig på ca. 4.000.

Et bykort i 1858
I 1858 blev der udgivet et kort over Aarhus. Det blev senere trykt i J.P. Traps bekendte topografiske beskrivelse af Danmark. Det er interessant at se nøjere på, for det afslører en by, hvor ændringer var på vej. Det var endnu en meget lille by, hvor befolkningstallet næppe oversteg de 10.000, selv om man endog regnede de nærmere forstæder med. Det var sådan set nødvendigt, for de var en del af det økonomiske opland. Den netop vedtagne næringslov fra 1857 fastslog, at der skulle være en såkaldt "demarkationslinje" mellem by og land på ca. 7 km. Her havde købstadens handlende handelsretten. Det gav i øvrigt nogle mærkelige konsekvenser, der kunne ses langt op i tiden. Der opstod mindre bysamfund netop på den anden side af den grænse. Det var bl.a. tilfældet i Vejlby, hvor der voksede en hel lille "provinsby" op med egne handlende, slagtere og siden bryggeri og meget mere. Viby er et tilsvarende eksempel syd for byen. Først i 1920 blev de snærende bånd omsider ophævet. Det er der i dag ikke mange, der tænker på.

I det hele taget var byen - her selvfølgelig Aarhus - stærkt økonomisk og opgavemæssigt adskilt fra landdistrikterne uden om byen. Arbejdsfordelingen mellem land og by var fastlagt i lovgivningen. Byerhverv med håndværk og handel hørte til i byen, mens produktion af landbrugsprodukter hørte til på landet. Udveksling af varer mellem de to økonomisystemer krævede en afgift: Den såkaldte accise. For at ingen skulle snyde, var byen indhegnet - her løb den såkaldte konsumptionslinie. Adgang til og fra byen skulle foregå gennem de autoriserede byporte. Dem var der syv af. De lå naturligvis der, hvor indfaldsvejene fra land til by gik. Der var derfor også én ved Frederiksgades udløb. Den hed Frederiksport. Det navn havde den fået i 1824 efter tilladelse af Frederik 6. Tidligere havde den heddet Brobjerggade/vej, og porten blev benævnt Brobjergporten. Herefter var man ude på landet, så snart man havde passeret den store kirkegård, der var anlagt 1818 samt den Mosaiske begravelsesplads på vejen mod Horsens.

Accise og byporte
De gamle byporte var forhadte. De bremsede borgernes frie adgang ind og ud af byen. Og nogle steder, ikke mindst i København, var der opbygget et så stramt system, fordi det også havde en militær betydning, at borgerskabet ganske enkelt var lukket inde - eller ude - når porten var lukket. Her kunne der være en lille bolig til den såkaldte konsumptionsbetjent og måske også til hans familie, men det var langt fra altid, at familien boede her. Det var vist nok ikke tilfældet ved Frederiksport, for brandforsikringsprotokollen oplyser kun om en enkelt kakkelovn i bygningen på tre fag. Herfra overvågede han imidlertid nidkært trafikken ved porten. Når hestevognene om morgenen kom ind til byen med landbrugsprodukterne, der måske var beskyttet af hø eller halm, kunne han bruge sit forkætrede redskab - den såkaldte "søger" - for at sikre sig, at der ikke var noget gemt i halmen, der ikke var meddelt ham. Det var i virkeligheden kun en jernstang, men den havde den effekt, at den altid opdagede, hvis der lå et slagtet får, en skinke, ænder eller gæs under halmen. Han skulle herefter beregne afgifterne, føre dem til bogs, og så kunne bonden rulle videre ad den smalle Frederiksgade.

Frederiksgade -port

Byporten i Frederiksgade var vist nok den nyeste af byens mange porte. Den var opført i 1824, og kongen havde personligt givet tilladelse til, at så vel den som gaden bagved, for fremtiden måtte bære hans navn. 25. september 1824 blev der nedlagt en sølvplade, der oplyste, at porten var rejst i taknemmelig erindring om kongens besøg i byen. Herefter forsvandt navnet Brobjergvej for at blive erstattet af det i dag velkendte Frederiksgade.

Om byporten er der endnu at tilføje, at det var den sidste, der forsvandt i byen. De var opført for kommunale midler, hvorfor byen da også udbød den i licitation til nedrivning. Det gik meget stærkt - inden året 1851 var omme var alle porte med undtagelse af Frederiksport forsvundet. Der gik dog blot seks år, så forsvandt også Federiksport, men der var knyttet den betingelse, at sølvpladen "skulle vedblive at være kommunens ejendom". I dag er der ingen, der ved, hvor den er blevet af.

Nu var der endelig fri passage fra kirkegården mod byen. Først forbi en række tømmerpladser på begge sider af vejen, så passerede bonden Østergade på sin højre hånd. Gaden var endnu lukket af en hel husrække, så der var ikke noget, der hed Mørksgade. Det navn kom først til i 1898. Østergade endte derfor i Frederiksgade og forbandt netop Frederiksgade med Fredensgade. Undervejs krydsede den Søndergade. Her lå flere byggepladser, for vejen var omkring 1850 kun ved at blive anlagt, små haver, marker, byggepladser og byggegrunde lå endnu mellem hinanden.

Hendrik Schandorff - købmand og iværksætter
Ejeren af den store gård på hjørnet af Frederiksgade og det, der i dag hedder Sønder Allé, hed Hendrik Schandorff, og han havde netop set muligheder i at udstykke en del jord mellem gården og byen bagved. I foråret 1854 havde han indrykket en annonce i Aarhuus Stiftstidende, hvor han oplyste, at han agtede at udstykke den ham tilhørende "tofte", der lå mellem Frederiksgade og Fredensgade. Der var perspektiver i den lille annonce, for købmanden fortsatte med at oplyse, at han selv ville bekoste udgifter til anlæg af gader. Tanken var, at det ville fremskynde salg og byggeudvikling i området. Var der først sat noget i gang, så ville resten komme af sig selv, synes købmanden at have ræsonneret.

FO by Hjørne
Hjørnet af Sønder Alle og Frederiksgade

Læser man annoncen i dag, tænker man ikke på, at det sådan set også var den, der satte udviklingen i gang af såvel Østergade som Søndergade. En af de første større grundhandler var salget af hjørnegrunden Sønder Allé / Søndergade. Køberen var den unge jernstøber Søren Frich, der i 1854 startede som selvstændig fabrikant på den grund, hvor i dag Regina-forretningsejendommen ligger.

Der var betydelig interesse for købmand Schandorffs grunde, så i årene efter 1854 blev arealerne afhændet langs det, der blev til Østergade. Også grunden mod Søndergade var der købere til. I dag forestiller man sig ikke, at et af projekterne gik ud på at opføre en kaserne på stedet. Dengang var soldaterne privat indkvarterede, så nogle effektive officerer så en forretning i at opføre private kaserner, som man lejede ud. Ejendommen stod helt frem til 1927 og er i øvrigt kendt i litteraturen fra Sophus Bauditz bog "Krøniker fra Garnisonsbyen", der udkom i 1892. Heri fortalte forfatteren i øvrigt, at soldaterne skød til måls tværs gennem de baghaver og den gyde, der lå mellem Østergade og det senere Sønder Allé. Den gyde havde derfor i folkemunde fået navnet Pistolstræde, et navn, den havde helt frem til 1893.

Der har levet "ægte oberster" i gaden. Den kendteste af dem alle var vel nok oberst Julius Høegh-Guldberg, der i første halvdel af 1800-årene var oberst ved garnisonen. Hans store interesse var haver, og bag den store gård i Frederiksgade anlagde han en stor prydhave med mange frugttræer. Obersten var en dygtig havemand, og træerne gav langt større udbytte, end der var brug for i Guldbergs egen husholdning. Gennem en lang årrække indrykkede han derfor hvert år i oktober en annonce i Aarhuus Stiftstidende, hvor han lod kundgøre, at ubemidlede og værdigt trængende kunne afhente en kasse gode æbler eller pærer. I hine tider rakte den private velgørenhed langt.

Det besværlige vejnet
Bonden kunne skrumle videre ned gennem Frederiksgade, der var bebygget på begge sider af vejen med lave huse, der ofte blev benævnt håndværkergårde. Der var beboelse ud til gaden, og i baghuse var der almindeligvis indrettet værksteder. Også de gårde og huse kender vi fra brandforsikringerne, og herfra kan man også erfare noget om de erhverv, der blev drevet i gaden: Skræddere, farvere, gørtlere, rebslagere, kurvemagere, skomagere er blot nogle af titlerne, men der ses også benævnelser som daglejere, madammer og enker. Så kom han til den smalle gamle Fiskergade, før han nåede frem til Frederiksbro og kunne svinge ind på torvene for at sælge varerne; ikke altid mod penge, oftere mod andre varer, som han havde brug for derhjemme. Økonomerne kalder den form for handel for "tuskhandel" - varer mod varer.

Pengeøkonomien var endnu noget, der stort set var forbeholdt bybefolkningen, så det var da også her i byen, de få pengeinstitutter havde til huse. Var der tid kunne det godt være, at han lige vendte hesten foran byens nye rådhus, der netop var indviet her i 1857. Det gamle hvide rådhus med rødder tilbage i middelalderen foran Domkirken var netop blevet revet ned for at give mere plads til torvehandelen.

Industrialismen på vej
Sådan havde livet formet sig i flere århundreder, men noget nyt var på vej. Industrialismen med dens voksende krav til effektivitet og masseproduktion bankede på. Det var også sket i Aarhus, hvor man netop planlagde den moderne jernbane, der blev indviet i 1862. Det var banen mellem de to "store" østjyske byer Aarhus og Randers. Dengang havde ikke ret mange forstået, hvor vigtigt et skridt banen var for den økonomiske udvikling. Omkring 1850 var Randers befolkningsmæssigt større end Aarhus, men ikke mindst det forhold kom banen til at ændre på.

Det havde været ret så vanskeligt at finde ud af, hvordan og hvor det nye transportmiddel skulle ligge i byen. Nogle af politikerne havde ment, at den kun skulle gå til Brabrand, fordi vejen ind til Aarhus ville være et "blindt spor". Lokomotiverne skulle vendes for at køre den anden vej, uanset om de skulle mod nord eller syd. Man forestillede sig heller ikke, at det ville have været værdifuldt at samtænke banen med havnen. Resultatet blev derfor, at jernbanestationen blev lagt der, hvor der var plads til den: Uden for byen, langt uden for byen næsten så langt ude, som øjet kunne række. For enden af det, der blev til Ryesgade. At det lykkedes, at få banen helt ind til Aarhus, var i sig selv et politisk mesterstykke.

En af de mænd, der havde spillet en stor rolle for netop banen, var konsul Mørk, der kom til at give navn til den nye gade, der mødte Frederiksgade, J.M. Mørks Gade, opkaldt efter den lokale politiker og redaktør af Aarhuus Stiftstidende. Han beskyldes som nævnt for at være den, der fik skabt Aarhus som en "blind banegård". Med den konstruktion, kunne intet tog nemlig køre uden om byen. Den ville automatisk få besøg af alle tog. De kunne ganske enkelt ikke slippe for byen. Og, det var vel i mange år en god løsning? At det var besværligt, fordi lokomotiverne skulle vendes, betød ikke så meget dengang, da tid ikke blev værdsat så højt - og slet ikke opgjort i penge som i dag.

En ny økonomi
Jernbanens indtog og den voksende økonomi betød imidlertid, at kritikken blev stadig voldsommere over for det gamle afgiftssystem. Hvordan skulle det håndtere de større vareladninger, der kom med tog? Tidens hele økonomiske tankegang gik også i retning af liberalismen, og de nye toldlove gik helt i samme retning, så i 1851 kom - som allerede berørt - den forordning, der afskaffede den gamle portkonsumption. Portene faldt og de fleste af de gamle portkonsumptionsbetjente, som de hed, blev afskediget. Det blev de også i Aarhus. Vi kender navnene på de fleste af de afskedigede betjente. Rent teknisk kom de på "ventepenge", men da den periode var udløbet, måtte de fleste se sig om efter et andet arbejde. Betjenten og hans kone ved Frederiksport begyndte vist nok på at lave "mad ud af huset" for, som annoncen sagde, han og hans kone "tog mod bestilling på 2 à 3 retter kraftig, veltillavet middagspise".

Da porten var borte, var der omsider gjort plads til en modernisering af indkørslen til Aarhus fra syd. Nybyggeri blev det selvfølgelig også til. Omkring 1870 opførtes bl.a. det hus, der af en senere eftertid er blevet benævnt "Kellers Gård", men som også gennem en årrække var kendt som Hotel Kronborg. I gaden lå endnu store gamle købmandsgårde. Der var M.K. Rasmussens gård, der lå skråt over for købmand S.M. Holst gård i den sydlige ende af gaden. Købmand Rasmussen havde frøkontor i bygningen. Den store gård blev først nedrevet i 1922, og på grunden opførte Jyllands-Posten et moderne bladhus med trykkeri bagved. Ved det byggeri traf man igen på de middelalderlige fundamenter fra det omtalte klosteranlæg med klostergård, kapitelhus og kirke.

På den modsatte side af Frederiksgade lå købmand Holsts store bindingsværksbygning med facade ud mod Søndre Kirkegård.

Flere byggepladser
På vej tilbage ad Frederiksgade ved højlys dag, var det tydeligt, at der var en udvikling på vej i området bag de gamle gader. Der var byggepladser mellem Søndergade og Frederiksgade, og så var der ikke mindst ved at ske en kraftig udvikling i området omkring Østergade. Gaden var langsomt ved at blive et helt nyt udviklingsområde. Tidligere havde udviklingen foregået nord for Åen, men nu var der for alvor ved at ske noget syd for Åen. En af drivkræfterne for udviklingen var den allerede nævnte jernstøber Søren Frich, der havde anlagt en mindre fabrik ved Søndergade i 1854. Udvidelserne voksede med anlæg på den anden side af gaden mod det, der senere blev kaldt Asylgade. Det var tungt materiel, jernstøberen lavede, og han var så småt ved at være opmærksom på de store opgaver, der lå i at levere materiel til jernbanen. Endnu var hans hovedproduktion støbegods til byggeriet samt landbrugsredskaber. Jernstøberen havde evne for at se, hvad der rørte sig i tiden og ikke mindst få sig selv placeret i forhold hertil. Da jernbanen i 1862 kom til byen og oprettede et større værksted, så han derfor straks de muligheder, der lå i at blive leverandør til banen. Det startede med kraner og diverse banemateriel, men udviklede sig hurtigt til også at omfatte dampmaskiner, der blev den nye tids svar på fremskridt. En af de første dampmaskiner blev leveret til Hendrik Schandorffs Dampbrænderi i Frederiksgade allerede året efter virksomhedens start.

Schandorff synes at have været den største ejendomsbesidder i området. Hans gård lå lige ved indkørslen til Frederiksgade og var efter datidens målestok ganske stor. Den havde en fin placering, for når bønderne kom ind til byen fra syd med deres produkter, lå hans gård først for og fik på den måde en del ekstra handel. Brandforsikringen opregner de mange bygninger med forhuse, baghuse, sidehuse, halvtag, stalde, tømmerlader, plankeværker og meget mere. Han var naturligvis ikke alene på stedet, men havde som nabo den også meget bekendte købmand Herskind, der også disponerede over et betydeligt antal bygninger med forskellige betegnelser. Dele af bygningerne eksisterer endnu i dag under adressen Frederiksgade 79. Her havde Aarhus Kommune adresse for byens Skolevæsen fra 1970-2010. Inde bagved mod Seedorffs Stræde ligger stadig flere af købmandens gamle bindingsværksbygninger.

Huset nr. 79 er ud mod gaden opført i 1816 i en stilart, der kaldes "københavnerklassicisme". Det var en imponerende stil i datidens Aarhus, hvor de fleste bygninger var i bindingsværk. Et grundmuret hus i en markant arkitektur, det var noget, man talte om - ganske som i dag. I midten af 1850'erne blev huset lejet ud til stiftamtmand Thorkild Chr. Dahl. Han var ganske vist ejer af Moesgård uden for byen, men man kunne ikke forvente, at borgerskabet ville rejse så langt for at få klaret de nødvendige forretninger, så amtmanden oprettede ganske enkelt amtskontor i Frederiksgade. Adressen er markeret på et kort fra 1858, udført af en kaptajn Alteht. Siden blev bygningen adresse for en oberst ved 3. dragonregiment, og han kunne fra sin bolig hurtigt nå frem til sin militære arbejdsplads. Det bekendte ridehus var rejst i 1860. Senere kom dragonkaserne i Vester Allé til, 1876/77 efter tegninger af arkitekt C. Lange. Den nye kaserne havde stor betydning for militæret og soldaterne i øvrigt, for det betød, at de ikke længere måtte lade sig indkvartere privat. Det betød på den anden side, at den gamle skik med at ældre officerer lejede værelser ud, efterhånden ophørte. Det er måske en af forklaringerne på, at den store ejendom efterhånden fik andre formål?

 

IN ENGLISH

The FO-city - a new district in town

Photos concerning excavations in the FO-city 

Recently archaeologist Karin Poulsen held a lecture in the FO-city about the Mosegaard excavations. On this link one can view some of her slides from the lecture: http://www.slideshare.net/dkmuseer/oplg-kolding

And this link shows a short video from the lecture: http://www.fo-aarhus.dk/nyheder/2013/video-skeletter-og-grave-i-fo-byen/

 

Historical information by Henrik Fode

In October 2009 Aarhus was supplied with a new concept or rather locality. To clarify this there were sent out invitations to the inauguration of the new locality, which was introduced as the FO-city. For the ignorant there was made a significant didactic effort, not least by attaching a multi colored drawing showing the FO-city. The locals could immediately identify the location, which was defined by Vester Allé, Christiansgade and Frederiksgade as the parallel boundary to Christiansgade.

The FO-city was a building complex, which based on the old girls' school and a collection of older buildings behind it out towards Frederiksgade, now should be marketed. There were attached many concepts to the invitation, which also talked about the General Education House and still to this day that is the inscription on the gable of the old municipal school.

It is this neighborhood, its history and background that will be outlined in the following.

 

Christiansgade School

Aarhus was growing in the years towards the year 1900. It was obvious to all, that more and more people moved to Aarhus from the surrounding areas. Many saw a future in the borough with its many new jobs. In the countryside, there was a rationalization on the way, which meant that there no longer were room for the many formerly farm workers and poor people. For many, the prospect therefor became to go to the city - and if that did not work out - there were also opportunities out in the big wide world: Emigration to America.

The huge influx of citizens put a tremendous pressure on the schools in the city. Up in the 1890s, this theme was discussed numerous times in the council chambers at City Hall behind the cathedral. In the late 1890 a decisive decision was made, which was the establishment of two new schools. A smaller preparatory school on Christiansbjerg and a large modern school for girls in the middle of the city. The latter was the one later known as Christiansgade girls' school, which at the time was called something a bit different: It was a "citizens' girls' school" and in a joint committee meeting between the school committee and the committee for the city's expansion and development, in 1898, it was decided to put the school on Bispetoften. The boys had already gotten their school in Ny Munkegade in 1890. School buildings had been a major item of expenditure in the municipal budget and with the city growing rapidly, municipal school buildings were built within a period of a few years, as shown below:

Municipal construction of schools in Aarhus 1862-1914

Year     Name
1862    Paradisgade's School
1880    Valdemarsgade's School
1884    Frederiks Allé's School
1890    Ny Munkegade's School
1893    Nørrebrogade's School
1900    Christiansgade's School
1903    Ingerslev's Boulevards School
1907    Finsensgade's School
1910    Fjordsgade's School
1914    Samsøgade's School

Yet it was such, that boys and girls did not attend the same classes or even go to the same school. Therefore, there were both municipal boys - and girls' schools. Around the time of 1900 there was a lack of school places for just girls. The solution was the construction of a brand new school in Christiansgade.

 

Bispetoften (translated: the bishop's thwart)

The area had been called that for several generations, even though it no longer belonged to the church. A part belonged to the owner of Aarhus' Mill and before building on the site could begin there had to be swapped land in the area.

The road leading down to the creek and across the bridge was just called "the road behind the city" or "the Jerome hill" for many years. It is the road, known today as Vester Allé. A name the creek only got in 1888. On it, there were already several monumental buildings built with public funds. There were Ridehuset (an indoor riding area), the Mounted Federal Infantry Barrack's main building and the royal building inspector V. Th. Walther's Poorhouse, and on the other side of the creek there was the museum building, which Walther also was the architect of.

The monumental buildings therefore almost required that a school of good quality and great architecture was constructed. And that seems to be the reason that there were held an architect contest for the new project. The winner was architect C. Harild, whom then became responsible for the construction of the girls' school.

Harlid was not just any architect, but a young person who had had close contact with the area's royal building inspector since 1892 -Hack Kampmann- he had also been an employee of the State Library, where he especially had a significant responsibility for its furnishings. It should also be mentioned that he was the conductor of Aarhus Theater, which was under construction. Like his mentor, he was very engaged in applying many decorative details and genuine solid materials. After Hack Kampmann's death in 1920, Carl Harild took on the completion of several of his mentor's unfinished projects.

The girls' school in Aarhus was one of Carl Harild's first independent projects. Moreover, he later became mansion manager at Amalienborg. It is safe to say, that the local decision-making authorities early on had eyes on his architectural qualities.

Today one might wonder about all the fuss for a school building, but one of the explanations seems to be that this was the first building in the new street: Christiansgade, which was named the year before after the reigning king Christian IX. Therefore, there was required a certain architectural level for that new city district, which was up and coming on Bispetoften. The State Library was also on track with its large building and there was no doubt that the municipality wanted to build in the same quality as the State. The construction work was started in 1898 and the State Library was inaugurated in 1901.

 

The architectural contest

Choosing the architect was not an easy decision. The committees had discussed choosing a local architect or dispensing a competition. They went to the city council in the spring of 1898 and it was decided to choose the "contest model".  So the case returned to the committee, whom then created the contest conditions.

On March 31st,1898 the contest invitation went through the City Council. The material was worked through to such an extent, that filling out the framework nearly was the only thing the participants had to do. The committee and City Council had already decided where the building or buildings should be placed on the property. "The façade facing Christiansgade and 10 feet from the street line and with two main entrances from the playground", as stated in the contest material.

Further, it was noted that the main building should be two stories tall, with a high cellar. There should be 15 classrooms, which were further specified. And it was required that the general education not could be disturbed by the gym- and music room, which meant that the walls towards the other school had to be isolated in a certain way. "A library or maybe a teachers' lounge could be placed in between" as it was expressed.

In the basement the committee wanted a spacious changing room and a smaller requisition room, as well as the gym. Finally, there should be a space for the fuel room, the heater and a janitor's house with 3 rooms, maidens' rooms, kitchen, pantry and a laundry room.

Two rooms that could be used for school baths were also on the wish list, along with a school kitchen. The latter should be placed in such a way, that the school would be disturbed as little as possible by the smell of food, as expressed.

For the construction of the playground, there were also specific requirements, which seen through modern eyes seem extremely modest:  the committee simply wanted a large canopy and "an appropriate number of lavatories".

The contest also required an estimate of a head teacher's house in a villa style, as expressed. It should have six rooms and in addition a maid's room, kitchen, pantry and basement. But it should be taken into account, that the price of the head teacher's villa, not should exceed 11,000 kr.

The City Council felt that the competing architects further should be advised about the project:

Therefore, it was added that the buildings should be sealed with slate and that the materials used should be of an extraordinarily high quality: "marrow cut wood for door and window frames".  A certain job was left for the architects. They could decide if the stairs should be performed in granite or pinewood.

The offers should be clear, and therefore it was required that the tenders should be divided into 7 points of work:

Bricklaying

Carpentry

Joinery

Painting

Glazing

Smithing

Plumbing and slate work

Thus, there were enough to do for the competing architects, but the prize for the winner was very large: 500 kr., which corresponded to a small annual salary for a laborer or a little less than half of a female teacher's annual salary.

 

The competition determined

The city council waited eagerly for the result of the competition, in the autumn of 1898. It was obviously a bit disappointing when they found out that there were only three proposals. One was immediately discarded, but two remained, both send anonymously under marks: one had used a city arms mark while the other had used a flower. None of the projects were totally satisfying. When the envelopes where opened, the names of the two architects were revealed: Thorkel Møller and Carl Harild.

Oddly enough Thorkel Møller won the prize, even though the project that was chosen not was his, but as already mentioned compiled by Carl Harlid. They were aware that Harild's proposal acquired some "adaptations" before the council found that it met the aspirations made by the school commission.

The winning architect - Thorkel Møller - was definitely not unknown in the city - or for that matter for Harild. Thorkel Møller had also worked for the royal building inspector Hack Kampmann and around the year 1900 he had had major engagements in the redevelopment of Hotel Royal. Since, he would receive several significant tasks in the city. In 1907 he was the architect responsible for Sct. Joseph Hospital on Ingerslevs Boulevard, since that the architect responsible for Marselisborg Hospital, which was built around 1912. On Bispethoften he was later known as the architect responsible for the New Jutland Marchant Credit Union's large building close to Christiansgade, which at the time was called Louisesgade and today is Åbulevarden. In that way he influenced the new city district on Bisbetoften with his architecture. 

 

School system

The Aarhus-based school system, which was directed at the new school, went back to 1880. The girls' school had a regulation for a seven-year course, with 2 pre-school classes for 7-9 year olds and five main classes for 9-14 year olds. At the time, there were still school fees. For the four lower classes they paid 2 kr. a month and 3 kr. for the higher classes.

The primary- and secondary-school was established in 1906, but the old citizen education continued a few more years. The students could after 4th grade continue in ether the five-year primary school or the three-year citizen school. The last time enrolment of paying students happened, was in the spring of 1909 and school payments ceased at the end of March 1912. 

When the school opened, the municipality had as a custom, of course, hired a man with the title of the head teacher of the school. Theodora Müller had been an employee at the schools, almost from its opening. 15 years later she was appointed head teacher and thereby became the first women in a municipal management position in Aarhus.

After the school had moved to Christiansgade in 1900, it became possible to increase the number of pupils at the schools and create a parallel course. In the time following, the student and class figures increased and most of the time there were between 500 and 600 girls attending school. On average about 29 girls per class. A teacher's salary was in 1905 in average 1748 kr. annually, while a female teacher had to settle for a lower pay: 1243 kr. annually. The city's head teachers or school principals, as recently called school leaders, were better paid. Their salary was 3342 kr. annually, as indicated in the municipal reports from 1905.

It was also mentioned in the report, which was characteristic of the time: That the children should have a bath at the school every 14 days, which should be managed by the janitor or his wife - however under the supervision of the school's teaching staff, as it was expressed.

 

A modern school in 1900

They had a school built after contemporary modern principles. Technically speaking the model was called a central corridor school. This indicated that there were classrooms on both sides of a wide aisle, on each floor. This also meant that it was possible to install large windows on both sides of the aisle and thereby produce a lot of natural lighting and great ventilation opportunities. In the attic there were furnished a library, physics room and space for the janitor.

The basement was also well utilized. There was the entrance to the large gymnasium and thereto of course dressing room and shower. On the opposite end of the building, there was furnished school kitchen, with the full width of the building. In the basement, there were still vacant rooms, even though there was room for a modern heating system, which still had to be fired with coal. A room for coal was consequently allocated.

Most of the classrooms seemed to have had the same size. Only the singing room on the first floor seemed to have been bigger, while the "nature classroom" had the same size as the other classrooms.

The furniture was of course standard of the time. It was school desks with fixed benches in rows. They probably bought two or three different sizes, so that the desks could match all of the different grades. Generally, there would be a space for an inkwell on the center of the desk, where the students could dip a stiff steel pen.

Naturally, there were thought of the teachers. At the time, two staff rooms were required and since the majority were women, their room, obviously, was the largest, while the male teachers - there were initially only a few- was more moderate. The female teacher's lounge was located on the first floor and the male's lounge was on the second. In a photo taken in 1902, one can see the teaching staff, with ten women and four men. The women are seated in the front wearing prim dresses, covering them completely. All the while the men are standing behind them, all with full beards and looking directly at the photographer.

It was a beautiful and harmonic construction the municipality had built. Even today it is a pleasure to study the fine gables facing Verster Allé. The craftsmen of the time displayed their best. It is still a delighted to look at the red hand-molded bricks laid on a granite base. The windows are not only well-placed, but also well-shaped, the mountings are divided in two, with smaller windows at the top and greater at the bottom of the frame. The use of ornaments is modest, but with an inscription in the gable made of sandstone. At the top there is also a small bay window where the architect has placed a large watch. This was not only for the children to arrive on time, but also so the people passing by could take note of the time. Naturally, the dial was done by the local Coppersmith A. Wilson.

As well as at the State Library and since the Courthouse and local prison, the artist Karl Hansen Reistrup had been a part of decorating the new school. In this case it ended up being only two plates, on the outer wall, which were finalized in Kähler's ceramic workshop in Næstved. One was of a little girl with a ruffle apron, while the other showed a girl who was about to graduate, this was symbolized with a lace collar, brooch and braided hair.

The long façade, facing Christiansgade may be perceived as more "uneasy" than the gable. It was deliberately sought symmetric. On the first floor the windows were crafted in an arch, while the windows on the second floor were square. At the outermost end, toward Vester Allé, the architect had to enlarge the window section again to ensure adequate lighting for the great hall behind it. In a certain extent, this solution also was adapted in the other end of the building. Below the top row of windows Harild had placed a ribbon that unobtrusively divided the long façade.

It was only toward the courtyard that there was inserted a series of dormers in the roof, to ensure daylight to the attic.

The villa or head teacher home was constructed in the same architectural style, but naturally in a smaller scale, which elegantly fit into the whole. The villa, however, had been provided with a balcony made of wood, towards Vester Allé.

The architect had stayed within the budget. The school had cost 136,000 kr. and the head teacher's home was within the specified price range of 11,000 kr. We know all the names of the master craftsmen, who were a part of the construction. Almost all of them were local; their bills were printed in the council's "printed negotiations". But, there were some exceptions, such as the ceramic workshop Kähler in Næstved that received 200 kr. for the two medallions of the girls, performed by Karl Hansen Reistrup.

A few years after building the girls' school, it became necessary to build a concrete wall up against Frederiksgade, to officially prevent the rainwater from flowing from the Frederiksgade-buildings and down into the schoolyard. In fact it was, rather to avoid that the school girls should be inducted to restructure their way to school to Frederiksgade and the "city life" that was there. Today there is an open path through the schoolyard towards Frederiksgade. FO-Aarhus has furnished one of the oldest middle buildings, with modern office facilities. (By the blue arrow)

For the school it was essential, that the housing pattern changed after the war. Not only did a lot of new neighborhoods blossom around town. The housing associations were also extremely active and offered modern apartments in the outskirts of the city. Perhaps to fill the school, the municipality decided that, the old school also should accept boys, from 1952. The school was renamed Christiansgade School, as the small word "girl" disappeared.

But this was not enough to maintain the number of pupils that slowly decreased. The development meant that fewer families with children lived in the center of the city. And in the beginning of 1960 the school authorities decided that the new Frydenlund school, built from 1960-1967 in the western end of the municipality, near the border to Hasle, should replace Christiansgade school from 1962. At the time there were only a few hundred students distributed in nine grades. It should be mentioned, that the two plates of the school girls, also were moved to Frydenlund School.

Aarhus' Trade Association's business college (from 1970 Aarhus' Commerce-Degree college) had fared with leasing Paradiggade's- and Frederiks Allé's schools, but acquired the vacant buildings in 1960 and used them for business school education.

Now, this is also history. FO-Aarhus bought the buildings on Vester Allé in 2005 and renamed the place "The General Education House", as it can be read today, on the gable facing Vester Allé.

Read more about the school's history here (including stories told by people who went to the school as kids)

 

A new neighbor

Naturally, the properties in Chrisriansgade, with the fine view of the creek, were attractive. Early on, the Freemasons were aware of this. They had a building in Amaliegade already, but that was sold to the trade union, and in 1908 they commenced a large construction on Christiansgade with that money. The architect Eggert Achen constructed a three-story whitewashed mansion as the neighbor to the school. The address was Christiansgade 6. Only a small exit between the schoolyard and the school building separated the two buildings. During construction, they found out that the area had been inhabited earlier. The discovery of skeletal remains showed that there had been a monastery in the area, extending towards Frederiksgade. Today the name Eggert Aches is nearly forgotten. He was the one who named the Verna-palace in 1908, as well as the forest restaurant Ørnereden (the Eagle's Nest), which was built in 1910.

 

Courthouse and local prison

Yet, there was still one unoccupied property on Vester Allé, across from the new girls' school. There had been several plans for the property, between the girls' school and State Library. One of them was building a Cathedral school, while an older plan had suggested that the city's theater could have been a good fit. That did not happen. Instead, a new Courthouse and Local Prison was inaugurated, on the site in October 1906. The developer had also used the model of an architect competition for this project. It was won by L.A. Ludvigsen & Jul Hansen from Copenhagen. Also this time, only the best materials were used and again a monumental building was constructed to suit the site. The large construction was built by municipal- and country funds. They were aware, that the building was too large, but the city and county authorities hoped that the project would bring the High Court to Aarhus. At the time, there were negotiations on a new legal form and the city wanted to present a great offer to the state. However that did not work. The Minister of Justice Alberti was in prison for fraud and that was significant, when the decision had to be taken. The process of the new legal form was simply postponed.

However, the great house on Bispetoften became the place for country meetings and a smaller police station.

 

Frederiksgade - an old thoroughfare

The FO-city is demarcated by Frederiksgade - one of the city's old access-roads to the south.

Aarhus grew onto the northern side of Aarhus' stream, at the bottom of the river valley on two sandbanks, from which the eastern one stretched all the way to the coast. The central part of the city was located on the eastern bank, which soon was surrounded by a tall rampart and a tomb. It was also here that the powerful bishop Peder Vognsen in 1191 decided to build a new cathedral, which was only completed around 1500.

Around 1250 there was a large construction west of the embankment, this prompted the large marshy area, which completed the western moat, to be drained, and this is how Lille Torv (the Little Square) with Immervad down towards the stream was constructed, as we know it today. 

At the same time, the first bridge that we know of was build. This meant that there now was a passage into town, from the south downwards Brobjerg, as the area south of the river was called.

Even though the road towards Brobjerg probably was established in the end of 1200, it was only in the beginning of the 1400s that the city's citizens really started living on the southern side of the creek. Along the creek, Fiskergade was growing with a number of small houses, while there on the road towards Brobjerg gradually were being build large farms, probably by merchants. This construction pattern can be traced into the following centuries.

The economic blossom in the city in the 1400s did not only create growth within the city, but also the foundation for yet another monastery institution: The Carmelites, a mendicant order, were given a chapel on Brobjerg. During the following years, they build a large four-winged monastery facility, with a church as the south wing.

The monks, however, did not enjoy their new construction for long. The reformation was on its way and when it ended in 1536, the monastery was taken over by the crown.  The following years, the king gave the citizens whose houses had burned down -rich and poor- permission to take stones, timber and other building materials from the Carmelite monastery. Thus the convent disappeared, of which today only a few remains are identified archaeologically when the spade has been put into the grounds of Frederiksgade 70-78, or when the Freemasons, as mentioned, build in Christiansgade. The addresses 76-78 became known from the mid-1950s for the entertainment places Maritza and the night club Den blå Fugl (the Blue Bird).

The 1600s and the following century was in many ways a strange period of stagnation. The population would grow and soon after fall again, in particular as a result of epidemics, war, financial dearth and much more.

While the end of the 1700s was an initial period of growth, where the merchants could show off their wealth and build new solid houses in timber frames, the growth soon relapsed, due to the Napoleonic wars, which were followed by the country's bankruptcy in 1813 that created yet another economic recession. The population was almost at a standstill, with a steady number of citizens - about 4000.  

 

A city map in 1858

In 1858 a map of Aarhus was published. This was later printed in J.P. Trap's well-known topographical description of Denmark. It is interesting to look closely at, as it reveals a city where changes were on the way. It was still a very small town, where the population hardly exceeded 10,000 even with the nearest suburbs included. It was important that they were included because they were a part of the economic hinterland. The recently enacted Trade Act of 1857 stated that there should be a so-called "line of demarcation" between city and country at about 7 km. Here the borough's traders had the commercial rights, which incidentally led to some strange consequences that could be traced far up in time. Small communities arose, just on the other side of the boarder. One of these places was Vejlby, where an entire small "province" arose, with their own tradesmen, butchers and subsequent buildings and much more. A similar example is Viby south of the city. It was only in 1920 that the shackles finally were lifted. Not many think of this today.

In general, the city -Aarhus- was in terms of tasks and economics very separated from the country districts outside of the city. The division of labor between country and city was established by legislation. Urban professions with crafts and commerce belonged in the city, while the production of agricultural products belonged to the countryside. Exchange of goods between the two financial accounting systems required a fee: the so-called excises. For the sake of no one cheating, the city was fenced in - by the so-called consumption line. Access to and from the city had to be done through the authorized city gates. There were seven of them. Naturally, they were located on the access roads from the country to the city. Therefore, there was also one by Frederiksgade's outlet, which was called Frederik's gate. The name was given in 1824 by permission of Frederik 6. Before that it was called Brobjerggade (Brobjerg street) and the gate was called the Brobjerg gate. Then one was out in the countryside, as soon as one had passed the large graveyard, which was constructed in 1818 and also the Jewish cemetery on the road towards Horsens.

 

Excises and city gates

The old city gates were despised. They slowed down the citizens' free access to and from the city. And certain places, especially in Copenhagen, the system was so strict, because of the military significance that the citizens simply were locked in -or out- of the city, when the gates were closed. There could be a small accommodation there for the so-called consumptions officer and perhaps for his family, but it was far from always that the family would live there. That was probably the case at Frederik's gate, for the fire insurance protocol only mentions one simple tiled stove in the entire three-story building. From there he would zealously monitor the traffic at the gate. In the morning, horse carriages would arrive to the city with agricultural products. If the products were wrapped in hay and straw for protection, he could use his denounced tool -the so-called "searcher" -to make sure that there wasn't any unannounced stuff hidden in the hay. It was, in fact, just an iron bar, but it had the effect of always discovering if there were a slaughtered sheep, ham, ducks or goose hidden in the hay. He would then settle the charges and note them in the book, before the farmer could continue his journey down the narrow Frederik's street.

Frederiks's gate was probably the newest of the city's many gates. It was built in 1824 and the king himself had granted permission that it and the street behind it, in the future should bear his name. On September the 25th, 1824 a silver plate, that stated that the gate was raised in grateful remembrance of the king's visit to the city, was put down.  Hereafter the name Brobjerg was replaced with Frederiksgade, as it is known today.

It should be mentioned, that this gate was the last one to disappear from the city. They were built by municipal funds, which is why the city offered in tenders for the demolition. It went very fast - before the end of 1851, all the gates were gone, with the exception of Frederik's gate. Only six years later, Frederik's gate had also disappeared, but with the condition that the silver plate "would remain municipal property". Today no one knows where it is.

Finally, there was a free passage from the cemetery to the city. First the farmer would pass a row of timber yards on both sides of the road, and then he would pass Østergade on the right hand side. Still the street was closed off by a row of houses, so there was no such thing as Mørksgade. That name was only given in 1898. Østergade therefore ended in Frederiksgade and connected Frederiksgade with Fredensgade, which crossed Søndergade along the way. Here there were several construction sites. Because the road in 1850 was being established, there were small gardens, fields, construction sites and building plots all amongst each other.

 

Hendrik Schandorff -merchant and entrepreneur

The owner of the large farm on the corner of Frederiksgade and what today is called Sønder Allé, was Hendrik Schandorff. He had seen opportunities in separating a part of land between the farm and the city behind it. In the spring of 1854 he placed an advertisement in Aarhus Stiftstidende, in which he stated that he intended to subdivide the "plot of land" belong to him, which was located between Frederiksgade and Fredensgade. There were prospects in the small ad, for the merchant continued by stating that he would pay the cost of construction of streets. The idea was that this would accelerate sales and city development in the area. If he started something, the rest would take care of itself, seems to be what the merchant had reasoned.  

If reading the announcement today, one would not think that this was what initiated the development of both Østergade and Søndergade. One of the first large land deals was the sale of the corner plot Sønder Allé / Søndergade. The buyer was the young iron founder Søren Frich, who in 1854 started as an independent manufacturer on the property, where the Regina-business property is located today.

There was a considerable interest in merchant Schandorff's grounds, so in the years after 1854, the land was sold, along what became Østergade. There were also buyers for the lot facing Søndergade. Today it is hard to imagine that one of the projects was to build a barrack on the site. At the time the soldiers were privately accommodated, therefore some efficient officers saw a business opportunity in building private barracks for rental. The property was there up until 1927 and is also known from Sophus Bauditz' book "Chronicled from the Garrison Town", published in 1892. In addition, the author stated in the book, that the soldiers would fire at targets across the backyards and alleys located between Østergade and later known Sønder Allé. That alley was colloquially known as the Pistol Strait, a name it had up until 1893.

This is where the "genuine colonels" lived. The most famous of them all, probably was Colonel Julius Høegh-Guldberg, who was the Colonel at the Garrison for the first half of the 1800s. He was very interested in gardens and landscaped a large ornamental garden with many fruit trees behind the great farm in Frederiksgade. The Colonel was a skilled gardener and the trees produced much higher yields, than was needed in his own household. For many years, he would create an ad in Aarhus Stiftstidende, every October, to promulgate that the destitute and needy could pick up a box of good apples or pears. In those times private charity went a long way.

 

The troublesome road system

The farmer could continue clattering down Frederiksgade. On both sides of the road there had been build low houses, often called artisan farms. The residences were out towards the street and the rear buildings were commonly arranged as workshops. Also, these farms and houses are known from the fire insurances and from them one can learn something about the occupations that were on this street: Tailors, dyers, braziers, rope makers, basket makers and shoemakers are just a few of the titles, but there were also designations such as day laborers, madams and widows. Then the farmer would come to the old narrow Fiskergade, before he would reach Freriksbro, where he could turn into the squares to sell his articles; not always in exchange for money but for other items, he needed at home. The economics called this type of exchange for "barter deals" -goods for goods.

The money economy was still something that was largely reserved for the urban population and therefore the financial institutes were located in the city. If he had time, it could very well be that the farmer would turn his horse around and go see the New City Hall, which had just been inaugurated in 1857. The old white City Hall, with roots dating back to the Middle Age, that was located in front of the Cathedral, had just been torn down to make more space for the market trades.  

 

The industrialism was on its way

This had been life for centuries but changes were on the way. The industrialism with its increasing demands for efficiency and mass production knocked on the door. This was also the case in Aarhus, where they were planning the modern railway, which was inaugurated in 1862. It was the railroad between the two "large" East Jutland towns Aarhus and Randers. At the time, not many were aware of how significant the railroad was for the economic development. Around 1850 Randers' population was greater than Aarhus' but the new railway would change this circumstance.

It had been difficult to decide how and where this new form of transportation should be placed in the city. Some politicians thought that the railroad only should reach Brabrand, because the road into Aarhus would be a "dead end".  The locomotives had to be turned around, to go the other way, whether they were going north or south. They could not imagine that it would be valuable to conjoin the railroad with the harbor. Therefore, the outcome was that the railway station was located where there was enough space for it: outside of the city, far outside of the city, almost as far as the eye could reach. At the end of what became Rygsgade. That they managed to get the track all the way into Aarhus was per se a political masterstroke.

One of the people who had played a major part in the railroad was consul Mørk. The street that met Frederiksdage was named after him, and became J.M. Mørk's street, after the local politician and editor at Aarhus Stiftstidende. As mentioned, he is accused of being the one who created Aarhus as a "dead end station". Due to the structure, none of the trains were able to bypass the city. Automatically all trains would pass through the station. They simply could not avoid going through the city. And for many years, that seemed to be a good solution? That it was troublesome to turn the locomotives around, did not matter then, time was not valued as high -and definitely not calculated in money, as it is today.

 

A new economy

The entry of the railroad and the growing economy meant that the criticism grew more and more violent towards the old levy system. How was it supposed to handle the great cargo, that arrived with the trains? The whole way of thinking was heading in a more liberal direction and so was the customs laws, so in 1851 came -as already mentioned- the regulation, that abolished the old consumption port. The gates were demolished and most of the old port consumptions officers, as they were called were dismissed. This was also the case in Aarhus. We know the names of most of the dismissed officers. Technically speaking, they went on, "severance pay" but when the period expired, most of them had to look for a new job. The officer and his wife at Frederik's gate apparently started making "takeout food" for as the ad said, he and his wife "received orders of 2 or 3 courses, heavily cooked dinner eats".

When the gates were gone, there was finally room for a modernization of the pathway to Aarhus from the south, and naturally, there was also room for new development. One of the houses constructed around 1870, was the house later known as "Keller Yard", which also had been known for a number of years, as the Kronborg Hotel. There were still large old merchant farms, in the street. M.K. Rasmussen's farm was located opposite of merchant S.M. Holst's farm, both located in the southern end of the street. Merchant Rasmussen had a seed office in the building. The large farm was demolished in 1922 and on that piece of land, Jyllands-Posten built a modern newspaper office, with a printing establishment at the back. Also at this construction, one could encounter medieval foundations from the mentioned monastery with its cloister, chapter house and church.

On the opposite side of Frederiksgade, was merchant Holst's large timber framed building with its façade facing Sønder Kirkegård (the Southern Cemetery).

 

Several construction sites

On the way back along Frederiksgade at broad daylight, it was clear that a development was on its way in the area behind the old streets. There were construction sites between Søndergade and Frederiksgade, and not least in the area around Østergade, where there was about to be a rapid development. The street was slowly becoming a new area of development. Earlier on, the development had occurred on the northern side of the river, but now there was really beginning to happen something south of the river. One of the driving forces behind the development was, as mentioned, the iron founder Søren Frich, who had placed a small factory on Søndergade in 1854. The development grew with construction on the other side of the street towards what later was named Aslygade. The iron founder produced heavy equipment and he was beginning to be aware of the major tasks that would lay in supplying equipment for the railway. Yet his main production had been castings for construction and agricultural tools. Frich had an ability to spot what was up and coming, and not least to get himself placed in relation thereto. When the railway arrived to the city in 1862 and with it created a large workshop, he immediately saw great opportunity in becoming a supplier for the track. It started with cranes and various track materials, but quickly evolved to include steam engines, which became a great progress for the newer times. One of the first steam engines was delivered to Hendrik Schandorff's steam powered distillery just one year after the business was established. 

Schandoff seemed to have been a major property owner in the area. His yard was located at the entry to Frederiksgade and was, back then, quite large. It was perfectly located, for when the children came into town from the south with their products, his farm was the first one they came by and therefore he got a lot of extra trade. The fire insurance enumerated all the buildings with front, back and side buildings, pent roofs, stables, timer sties, fences and much more. He obviously was not alone in the area, his neighbor was the well-known merchant Herskind, who also predisposed a significant number of buildings with different designations. Some of the buildings still exist today at the address, Frederiksgade 79. This was also where Aarhus municipality educational system was located from 1970-2010. Behind it, towards Seedorffs Stræde there are still some of the merchant's old half-timbered buildings.

Toward the street the house no. 79 was constructed in a style called "Copenhagen classicism". It was an impressive style in Aarhus, at a time where most of the buildings were half-timbered. A brick-build house in a distinctive architectural style, was something people talked about - just as we do today. In the mid-1850s the house was rented out to the county prefect Thorkild Chr. Dahl. He was admittedly the owner of Mosegård, outside of the city, but one could not expect the bourgeoisie to travel that far to take care of essential business, so the prefect simply established a county office in Frederiksgade. The address is marked on a city map from 1858, conducted by captain Alteht.  Since that, the address also housed a Colonel at the 3rd dragoon regime, where he quickly could reach his military workplace, from his house. The famous building Ridehuset (the Riding House) was constructed in 1860. Later the Dragoon Barracks in Vester Allé was built, in 1876/77, designed by architect C. Lange. The new barracks was significant for the military and especially the soldiers, for it meant that they no longer could accommodate themselves privately. On the other hand, that also meant that old custom, where the senior officers would rent out their rooms, gradually ceased. And perhaps, this is why the large building gradually was used for other purposes.